Preliminary Phase: Framework and Principles

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

To confirm the commitment of the stakeholders

To define the constraining principles

To identify an organization’s “architecture footprint” that is, the people responsible for performing the architecture work, where they are located, and their responsibilities

To define the scope and assumptions; this is particularly important for large organizations where there may be a federated architecture environment

To define the framework and detailed methodologies that are going to be used to develop the enterprise architecture in the organization; this is typically an adaptation of the ADM

To set up and monitor the framework’s fitness-for-purpose; normally this includes an initial pilot project to check the viability of the approach within the organization

To define the evaluation criteria for tools, repositories, and management processes to: capture, publish, and maintain architecture artifacts

Defining “How we do Architecture”: Principles and Frameworks

Establishing IT Architecture Governance

TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM)

Other architecture framework(s)

Business strategy (including goals and drivers)

IT governance strategy

Architecture principles, including business principles

Other federated architectures principles

Architecture principles

Framework definition

Restatement of business principles, goals, and drivers

Phase A: Architecture Vision

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

Obtain management commitment for this particular cycle of the ADM

Validate business principles, goals, and drivers

Define, scope, and prioritize architecture tasks

Identify stakeholders, their concerns, and objectives

Define business requirements and constraints

Describe appropriate solutions

Obtain formal approval to proceed

Understand the influence on, and from, parallel architecture developments

Project Establishment

Identify Business Goals and Business Drivers

Review Architecture Principles, including Business Principles

Define the scope

Define Constraints

Identify Stakeholders and Concerns, Business requirements, and Architecture Vision

Document the Statement of Architecture Work and Gain Approval

Request for Architecture Work

Business strategy, business goals, and business drivers

Architecture principles, including business principles

The Enterprise Continuum; that is, existing architecture documentation (framework description, architecture descriptions, existing baseline descriptions, etc.)

Approved Statement of Architecture Work including:

  • Scope and constraint
  • Plan for the architecture work

Refined statements of business goals and strategic drivers

Architecture principles, including business principles

Architecture Vision (produced by the business scenario) including:

  • Baseline Business Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Baseline Technology Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Baseline Data Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Baseline Applications Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Target Business Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Target Technology Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Target Data Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Target Applications Architecture, Version 0.1

Phase B: Business Architecture

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

Select architecture viewpoints to demonstrate how stakeholder concerns are addressed in the Business Architecture

Select tools and techniques for viewpoints

Describe the existing Business Architecture (the current baseline)

Develop a Target Business Architecture

Analyze the gaps between the Baseline and Target Architectures

Develop Baseline Business Architecture Description

Identify Reference Models, Viewpoints, and Tools

Create Business Architecture Model(s)

Select Business Architecture Building Blocks

Conduct a Formal Checkpoint Review of the Architecture Model and Building Blocks with Stakeholders

Review Non-Functional (Qualitative) Criteria

Complete the Business Architecture

Perform Gap Analysis and Create Report

Request for Architecture Work

Approved Statement of Architecture Work

Refined statements of business goals and strategic drivers

Architecture principles, including business principles

The Enterprise Continuum

Architecture Vision, including:

  • Baseline Business Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Baseline Technology Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Baseline Data Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Baseline Applications Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Target Business Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Target Technology Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Target Data Architecture, Version 0.1
  • Target Applications Architecture, Version 0.1

Statement of Architecture Work, updated if necessary

Validated business principles, business goals, and strategic drivers

Target Business Architecture, Version 1.0 (detailed)

Baseline Business Architecture, Version 1.0 (detailed)

Views corresponding to the selected viewpoints addressing key stakeholder concerns

Gap analysis results

Technical requirements identifying, categorizing, and prioritizing the implications for work in the remaining architecture domains (for example, by a dependency/priority matrix )

Business Architecture Report

Updated business requirements

 

Phase C: Information Systems Architecture

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

To develop Target Architectures for the Data and/or the Applications domains

For Data Architecture:
Define the types and sources of data needed to support the business, in a way that can be understood by the stakeholders

For Applications Architecture:
Define the kinds of application systems necessary to process the data and support the business

There are two steps in this phase, that may be developed in either order or parallel:

Application principles

Data principles

Request for Architecture Work

Statement of Architecture Work

Architecture Vision

Enterprise Continuum

Baseline Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Baseline Data Architecture, Version 0.1

Target Data Architecture, Version 0.1

Baseline Applications Architecture, Version 0.1

Target Applications Architecture Version 0.1

Relevant technical requirements

Gap analysis results

Re-usable building blocks (from organization’s Architecture Continuum)

Statement of Architecture Work

Baseline Data Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Data Architecture, Version 1.0

Baseline Applications Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Applications Architecture, Version 1.0

Data Architecture views corresponding to the selected viewpoints

Applications Architecture views corresponding to the selected viewpoints

Data Architecture Report

Applications Architecture Report

Gap analysis results

Impact Analysis

Updated business requirements

Data Architecture
Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

Define the types and sources of data needed to support the business, in a way that can be understood by the stakeholders

Develop Baseline Architecture Description

Review and Select Principles, Reference Models, Viewpoints, and Tools

Create Data Architecture Model(s)

Select Data Architecture Building Blocks

Conduct a Checkpoint Review of the Architecture Model

Review Qualitative Criteria

Complete the Data Architecture

Conduct Checkpoint/Impact Analysis

Perform Gap Analysis and Create Report

Data principles

Request for Architecture Work

Statement of Architecture Work

Architecture Vision

Baseline Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Baseline Data Architecture, Version 0.1

Target Data Architecture, Version 0.1

Relevant technical requirements

Gap analysis results

Re-usable building blocks (from organization’s Enterprise Continuum)

Statement of Architecture Work

Baseline Data Architecture, Version 1.0

Validated data principles, or new data principles

Target Data Architecture, Version 1.0

Data Architecture views corresponding to the selected viewpoints

Data Architecture Report

Gap analysis results

Relevant technical requirements that will apply to this evolution of the architecture development cycle

Impact Analysis

Updated business requirements

Applications Architecture
Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

Define the kinds of application systems necessary to process the data and support the business

Develop Baseline Applications Architecture Description

Review and Validate Principles, select Reference Models, Viewpoints, and Tools

Create Architecture Models for each Viewpoint

Identify Candidate Applications

Conduct a Checkpoint Review

Review the Qualitative Criteria

Complete the Applications Architecture

Perform Gap Analysis and Create Report

Application principles

Request for Architecture Work

Statement of Architecture Work

Architecture Vision

Relevant technical requirements

Gap analysis results (from Phase B: Business Architecture)

Baseline Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Baseline Applications Architecture, Version 0.1

Target Applications Architecture Version 0.1

Re-usable building blocks (from organization’s Enterprise Continuum)

Statement of Architecture Work

Baseline Applications Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Applications Architecture, Version 1.0

Validated application principles, or new application principles

Applications Architecture views corresponding to the selected viewpoints

Applications Architecture Report

Gap analysis results

Impact Analysis

Updated business requirements

Phase D: Technology Architecture

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

To develop a Target Technology Architecture that will form the basis of the following implementation work.

Develop Baseline Technology Architecture Description

Create Target Technology Architecture:

Create a Baseline Technology Architecture Description in services terminology

Consider different Architecture Reference Models, Viewpoints, and Tools

Create an Architecture Model of Building Blocks

Select the Services Portfolio per Building Block

Confirm that the Business Goals and Objectives are Met

Choose the Criteria for Specification Selection

Complete the Architecture Definition

Conduct Gap Analysis

Technology principles, if existing

Request for Architecture Work

Statement of Architecture Work

Architecture Vision

Baseline Technology Architecture, Version 0.1

Target Technology Architecture, Version 0.1

Relevant technical requirements

Gap analysis results (from Data Architecture and Applications Architecture)

Baseline Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Baseline Data Architecture, Version 1.0

Baseline Applications Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Re-usable building blocks

Target Data Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Applications Architecture, Version 1.0

Statement of Architecture Work, updated if necessary

Baseline Technology Architecture, Version 1.0

Validated technology principles or new technology principles (if generated here)

Technology Architecture Report, summarizing what was done and the key findings

Target Technology Architecture, Version 1.0

Technology Architecture, gap analysis report

Viewpoints addressing key stakeholder concerns

Views corresponding to the selected viewpoints

Phase E: Opportunities and Solutions

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

Evaluate and select implementation options (for example, build versus buy versus re-use)

Identify the strategic parameters for change and the projects to be undertaken

Assess the costs and benefits of the projects

Generate an overall implementation and migration strategy and a detailed Implementation Plan

Identify the Key Business Drivers

Review Gap Analysis from Phase D

Brainstorm Technical Requirements

Brainstorm Other Requirements

Architecture Assessment and Gap Analysis

Identify Work Packages or Projects

Request for Architecture Work

Statement of Architecture Work

Target Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Data Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Applications Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Technology Architecture, Version 1.0

Re-usable Architecture (Solution) Building Blocks from your organization’s Enterprise Continuum

Product information

Implementation and migration strategy

High-level Implementation Plan

Impact Analysis document — the project list section is documented in this phase

Phase F: Migration Planning

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

Sort the various implementation projects into priority.

Produce a prioritized list of projects that will form the basis of the detailed Implementation and Migration Plans.

Prioritize Projects

Estimate the resource requirements and available resources for each project

Perform a cost/benefit analysis for each project to identify the projects that will make the most impact in proportion to their costs

Perform a risk assessment for each project to identify any high risk projects

Generate a proposed implementation roadmap

Prepare a migration plan showing how existing systems will migrate to the new architecture

Request for Architecture Work

Statement of Architecture Work

Target Business Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Technology Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Data Architecture, Version 1.0

Target Applications Architecture, Version 1.0

Impact Analysis — project list

Impact Analysis — detailed Implementation Plan and Migration Plan (including Architecture Implementation Contract)

Phase G: Implementation Governance

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

Formulate recommendations for each implementation project

Construct an Architecture Contract to govern the overall implementation and deployment process

Perform appropriate governance functions while the system is being implemented and deployed

Ensure conformance with the defined architecture by implementation projects and other projects

Formulate Project Recommendations

Document Architecture Contract

Perform ongoing Implementation Governance

Request for Architecture Work

Statement of Architecture Work

Re-usable Solution Building Blocks (from the organization’s Solutions Continuum

Impact Analysis — detailed Implementation Plan and Migration Plan (including Architecture Implementation Contract)

Impact Analysis — Implementation Recommendations

Architecture Contract

The architecture-compliant implemented system

Phase H: Architecture Change Management

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

Establish an architecture change management process

Provide continual monitoring of changes in technology, business, etc.

Determine whether to initiate a new architecture cycle or make changes to the framework and principles

Monitor Technology Changes

Monitor Business Changes

Assess Changes and Development of Position to Act

Arrange Meeting of Architecture Board

Requests for Architecture Change due to technology changes

Requests for Architecture Change due to business changes

Architecture updates

Changes to architecture framework and principles

New Request for Architecture Work, to initiate another cycle of the ADM

Requirements Management

Objectives Steps Inputs Outputs

To provide a process to manage architecture requirements throughout the phases of the ADM cycle

Identify requirements for the enterprise, store them and feed them in and out of the relevant ADM phases, which dispose of, address and prioritize requirements

Identify/document requirements

Baseline Requirements

Monitor baseline requirements

Identify changed requirement; remove, add, modify and re-assess priorities

Identify changed requirement and record priorities; identify and resolve conflicts; generate requirements impact statements

Assess impact of changed requirement on current and previous ADM phases

Implement requirements arising from Phase H

Update the requirements repository

Implement change in the current phase

Assess and revise gap analysis for past phases

The inputs to the Requirements Management process are the requirements-related outputs from each ADM phase.

The first high-level requirements are produced as part of the Architecture Vision.

Each architecture domain then generates detailed requirements. Deliverables in later ADM phases contain mappings to new types of requirements (for example, conformance requirements).

Changed requirements

Requirements Impact Statement, which identifies the phases of the ADM that need to be revisited to address any changes. The final version must include the full implications of the requirements (e.g., costs, timescales, and business metrics).