What is Enterprise – a collection of organizations that share a common set of Goals

  • What is an Architecture – An Architecture is the fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in:
    • it’s elements,
    • their relationships to each other and the environment,

and the principles governing its design and evolution.

Architecture in the Context of TOGAF

  1. A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at component level to
    guide its implementation

 

  1. The structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines
    governing their design and evolution over time

What is Enterprise Architecture – A conceptual blueprint that defines the structure and operation of an organization. The intent of enterprise architecture is to determine how an organization can most effectively achieve its current and future objectives.

What is TOGAF – An Enterprise Architecture framework

TOGAF 9.2 COMPONENTS

  1. ADM

– iterative process/method to develop organization-specific architectures

  1. ADM GUIDELINES AND TECHNIQUES
  2. CONTENT FRAMEWORK

– Metamodel – structure for inputs and outputs of ADM

  • Work products (Deliverables, Artifacts, Building Blocks), their purpose and templates to create them
  1. ENTERPRISE CONTINUUM
  • Taxonomy (categorization) of architecture and solution assets based on their reusability
  • Foundation, Common Systems, Industry and Organization Specific
  1. CAPABILITY FRAMEWORK
  • Guidelines and templates to establish an architecture function within the enterprise
  • Skills, Roles, Processes, Governance and Architecture Repository

 

Architecture Development Method (ADM)

Phases of ADM

Preliminary

  • Organization context
    • Purpose of org (Mission statement)
    • Drivers, goals, and objectives
    • Maturity assessment
      • ACMM

 

  • Establish Arch capability
    • Governance
      • Establish arch board
    • Establish the EA team (Organization model)
    • Select and implement EA tool

 

  • Define arch principles
    • Rules and guidelines that tell how an organization fulfills its mission
    • Can be used for selecting technology assets
    • Four parts
      • Name
      • Statement
      • Rationale (business benefits)– to prioritize
      • Implications (Highlight requirements for the principles and consequences) – what is in it for the stakeholders
    • Five qualities
      • Understandable – clear and unambiguous
      • Robust – enables to take better decisions
      • Complete – address all aspects of IT
      • Consistent – should not be contradictory
      • Stable – long-lasting
    • Tailor the framework
      • Terminology – provide a glossary
      • Process – adapting ADM
      • Content – Metamodel extensions
        • Governance
        • Process modeling
        • Data
        • Services
        • Infrastructure consolidation
        • Motivation
      • Outputs
        • Principles
        • Request for arch work

 

Phase A : Architecture Vision

  • Establish the project
  • Identify stakeholders and their concerns
    • Stakeholder mgmt.
    • Business scenario
      • Identify and understand the requirements
        • Steps
        • Problem statement.
        • Environment
        • Objectives
        • Human actors
        • Computer actors
        • Roles and responsibilities
        • Refine
      • Confirm goals, drivers and constraints
      • Define capabilities
        • Value chain diagram
        • Capability based planning – which emphasizes on business outcomes
          • (radar or spider web diagram)
        • Business transformation readiness assessment
          • Identify readiness factors
          • A maturity model for factor
          • Risks
            • Initial – prior to mitigation action
            • Residual – remaining risk after mitigation
          • Scope
            • Breadth (extent of enterprise – no of Business units impacted)
            • Depth ( level of detail )
              • Strategic
              • Segment
              • Capability
            • Time
            • Arch domains
              • Business
              • Data
              • Application
              • Technology
            • Confirm principles
            • Define vision
              • Business scenario
              • Solution concept dia
                • Building blocks
                  • reusable components
                  • Package of functionality
                  • Interoperability
                • Target arch value proposition and KPI
                • Risk mgmt
                • Output
                  • Statement of arch work
                    • Scope and approach
                  • Steps for four arch
                    • Select reference models, viewpoints and tools
                    • Define baseline architecture
                    • Define the target architecture
                    • Gap analysis
                    • Roadmap components
                    • Impact analysis
                    • Stakeholder review
                    • Finalize arch
                    • Arch definition doc and requirements spec

 

Phase B : Business Architecture

  • Outputs
    • Organization structure
    • Business capabilities
    • Value stream
    • Business functions
    • Business services
    • Business processes
    • Business roles
    • Business rules

Phase C : Information System Architecture

  • Data
    • Data entities, data life cycle
  • Application
    • Applications or services (III-RM is used to develop App Arch)

Phase D : Technology Architecture

  • Infrastructure (Technology) services (TRM is used to develop Tech Arch)
    • Service qualities

Phase E : Opportunities and solutions

  • Implementation factor assessment and deduction matrix
  • Business constraints
  • Consolidated gaps, solutions and dependencies matrix
  • Requirements from a functional perspective
  • Interoperability
  • Dependencies
  • Business transformation readiness assessment
  • Implementation and migration strategy
  • Identify work packages
  • Transition arch
  • Arch roadmap and implementation and migration strategy
  • 1 – high-level outline
  • Outputs
    • Transition arch
  • Phase F : Migration planning

    • Confirm mgmt interactions
    • Business value
    • Estimate cost
      • Cost – benefit analysis
    • Prioritize migration projects
    • Confirm arch roadmap, ADD, ARS, Vision
    • Architecture definition increments table (Roadmap) and Transition architecture state evolution table (Roadmap for Technology services (TRM))
    • Complete implementation and migration plan
    • Complete arch development cycle and document lessons learned
    • Outputs
      • Formally reviewed detailed arch (1.0)
  • Phase G : Implementation Governance

    • Confirm scope and priorities
    • Resources and skills
    • Guide solutions deployment
    • Perform EA compliance
      • Project impact assessment
      • Compliance review
        • Catch errors early
        • Following standards
        • Standards need modification
        • Identity platform/technology services
        • Technical readiness
        • Procurement activities
        • Resource sharing
      • Compliance terminology
        • Irrelevant
        • Consistent
        • Compliant
        • Conformant
        • Fully conformant
        • Non-conformant
      • Implement business and IT operations
      • Post-implementation review
  • Phase H : Architecture Change Management

    • Achieve original target business value
    • Three categories
      • Simplification
      • Incremental
      • Rearchitecting
    • Implement business monitoring tools
    • Manage risk
    • Analysis for arch change mgmt
    • Develop changed requirements
    • Governance process
  • Requirements Management
    • Store requirements in and out of ADM phases

Content framework

  • Metamodel – structure for inputs and outputs of ADM phases
    • Work products
      • Deliverables – contractual outputs
      • Artifacts
        • Catalogs – list of things
        • Matrices – the relationship between two things
        • Diagram – pictorial representation
      • Building blocks
    • Enterprise continuum

classification of architecture and solution assets based on their reusability

  • Foundation – TRM
    • Common systems – III-RM
    • Industry
    • Organization specific
  • Arch repository
    • Physical storage of arch assets
      • Parts
        • Arch meta model
          • Arch method (ADM)
          • Content metamodel
        • Reference library – guidelines and templates to create a new architecture
        • Standards information base
          • List of specification
        • Governance log – stores the outputs of governance activities
        • Architecture capability – parameters, skills, org structure for arch governance
        • Architecture landscape – a snapshot of the enterprise
      • Strategic (enterprise)
      • Segment (program)
      • Capability (project)

Reference Models

TRM (Technical Reference Model)

  • Foundation arch – building blocks and corresponding standards
  • III-RM – common system – Boundaryless information flow
Architecture capability framework
  • Guidelines and tech to establish an arch function
    • Skills
    • Processes
    • Repository

Definitions:

  • View – representation of a system from the perspective of a related set of concerns
  • Viewpoint – a perspective from a view is taken
  • Stakeholder – people, teams or organization who have concerns about a system or architecture
  • Concerns – areas of interest that are crucially important to stakeholders for the acceptance of the system
  • TRM– Technical Reference Model
  • III-RM – Integration Information Infrastructure – Reference Model